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From 9625e90bdf35774c71f1e566e73d435e38c04171 Mon Sep 17 00:00:00 2001
From: Khem Raj <raj.khem@gmail.com>
Date: Wed, 18 Mar 2015 00:42:58 +0000
Subject: [PATCH] eglibc: Cross building and testing instructions

Ported from eglibc
Upstream-Status: Pending

Signed-off-by: Khem Raj <raj.khem@gmail.com>
---
 GLIBC.cross-building | 383 +++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++++
 GLIBC.cross-testing  | 205 +++++++++++++++++++++++
 2 files changed, 588 insertions(+)
 create mode 100644 GLIBC.cross-building
 create mode 100644 GLIBC.cross-testing

diff --git a/GLIBC.cross-building b/GLIBC.cross-building
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..e6e0da1aaf
--- /dev/null
+++ b/GLIBC.cross-building
@@ -0,0 +1,383 @@
+                                                        -*- mode: text -*-
+
+                        Cross-Compiling GLIBC
+                  Jim Blandy <jimb@codesourcery.com>
+
+
+Introduction
+
+Most GNU tools have a simple build procedure: you run their
+'configure' script, and then you run 'make'.  Unfortunately, the
+process of cross-compiling the GNU C library is quite a bit more
+involved:
+
+1) Build a cross-compiler, with certain facilities disabled.
+
+2) Configure the C library using the compiler you built in step 1).
+   Build a few of the C run-time object files, but not the rest of the
+   library.  Install the library's header files and the run-time
+   object files, and create a dummy libc.so.
+
+3) Build a second cross-compiler, using the header files and object
+   files you installed in step 2.
+
+4) Configure, build, and install a fresh C library, using the compiler
+   built in step 3.
+
+5) Build a third cross-compiler, based on the C library built in step 4.
+
+The reason for this complexity is that, although GCC and the GNU C
+library are distributed separately, they are not actually independent
+of each other: GCC requires the C library's headers and some object
+files to compile its own libraries, while the C library depends on
+GCC's libraries.  GLIBC includes features and bug fixes to the stock
+GNU C library that simplify this process, but the fundamental
+interdependency stands.
+
+In this document, we explain how to cross-compile an GLIBC/GCC pair
+from source.  Our intended audience is developers who are already
+familiar with the GNU toolchain and comfortable working with
+cross-development tools.  While we do present a worked example to
+accompany the explanation, for clarity's sake we do not cover many of
+the options available to cross-toolchain users.
+
+
+Preparation
+
+GLIBC requires recent versions of the GNU binutils, GCC, and the
+Linux kernel.  The web page <http://www.eglibc.org/prerequisites>
+documents the current requirements, and lists patches needed for
+certain target architectures.  As of this writing, these build
+instructions have been tested with binutils 2.22.51, GCC 4.6.2,
+and Linux 3.1.
+
+First, let's set some variables, to simplify later commands.  We'll
+build GLIBC and GCC for an ARM target, known to the Linux kernel
+as 'arm', and we'll do the build on an Intel x86_64 Linux box:
+
+    $ build=x86_64-pc-linux-gnu
+    $ host=$build
+    $ target=arm-none-linux-gnueabi
+    $ linux_arch=arm
+
+We're using the aforementioned versions of Binutils, GCC, and Linux:
+
+    $ binutilsv=binutils-2.22.51
+    $ gccv=gcc-4.6.2
+    $ linuxv=linux-3.1
+
+We're carrying out the entire process under '~/cross-build', which
+contains unpacked source trees for binutils, gcc, and linux kernel,
+along with GLIBC svn trunk (which can be checked-out with
+'svn co http://www.eglibc.org/svn/trunk eglibc'):
+
+    $ top=$HOME/cross-build/$target
+    $ src=$HOME/cross-build/src
+    $ ls $src
+    binutils-2.22.51  glibc  gcc-4.6.2  linux-3.1
+
+We're going to place our build directories in a subdirectory 'obj',
+we'll install the cross-development toolchain in 'tools', and we'll
+place our sysroot (containing files to be installed on the target
+system) in 'sysroot':
+
+    $ obj=$top/obj
+    $ tools=$top/tools
+    $ sysroot=$top/sysroot
+
+
+Binutils
+
+Configuring and building binutils for the target is straightforward:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/binutils
+    $ cd $obj/binutils
+    $ $src/$binutilsv/configure \
+    >     --target=$target \
+    >     --prefix=$tools \
+    >     --with-sysroot=$sysroot
+    $ make
+    $ make install
+
+
+The First GCC
+
+For our work, we need a cross-compiler targeting an ARM Linux
+system.  However, that configuration includes the shared library
+'libgcc_s.so', which is compiled against the GLIBC headers (which we
+haven't installed yet) and linked against 'libc.so' (which we haven't
+built yet).
+
+Fortunately, there are configuration options for GCC which tell it not
+to build 'libgcc_s.so'.  The '--without-headers' option is supposed to
+take care of this, but its implementation is incomplete, so you must
+also configure with the '--with-newlib' option.  While '--with-newlib'
+appears to mean "Use the Newlib C library", its effect is to tell the
+GCC build machinery, "Don't assume there is a C library available."
+
+We also need to disable some of the libraries that would normally be
+built along with GCC, and specify that only the compiler for the C
+language is needed.
+
+So, we create a build directory, configure, make, and install.
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/gcc1
+    $ cd $obj/gcc1
+    $ $src/$gccv/configure \
+    >     --target=$target \
+    >     --prefix=$tools \
+    >     --without-headers --with-newlib \
+    >     --disable-shared --disable-threads --disable-libssp \
+    >     --disable-libgomp --disable-libmudflap --disable-libquadmath \
+    >     --disable-decimal-float --disable-libffi \
+    >     --enable-languages=c
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make install
+
+
+Linux Kernel Headers
+
+To configure GLIBC, we also need Linux kernel headers in place.
+Fortunately, the Linux makefiles have a target that installs them for
+us.  Since the process does modify the source tree a bit, we make a
+copy first:
+
+    $ cp -r $src/$linuxv $obj/linux
+    $ cd $obj/linux
+
+Now we're ready to install the headers into the sysroot:
+
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH \
+    > make headers_install \
+    >      ARCH=$linux_arch CROSS_COMPILE=$target- \
+    >      INSTALL_HDR_PATH=$sysroot/usr
+
+
+GLIBC Headers and Preliminary Objects
+
+Using the cross-compiler we've just built, we can now configure GLIBC
+well enough to install the headers and build the object files that the
+full cross-compiler will need:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/glibc-headers
+    $ cd $obj/glibc-headers
+    $ BUILD_CC=gcc \
+    > CC=$tools/bin/$target-gcc \
+    > CXX=$tools/bin/$target-g++ \
+    > AR=$tools/bin/$target-ar \
+    > RANLIB=$tools/bin/$target-ranlib \
+    > $src/glibc/libc/configure \
+    >     --prefix=/usr \
+    >     --with-headers=$sysroot/usr/include \
+    >     --build=$build \
+    >     --host=$target \
+    >     --disable-profile --without-gd --without-cvs \
+    >     --enable-add-ons=nptl,libidn,../ports
+
+The option '--prefix=/usr' may look strange, but you should never
+configure GLIBC with a prefix other than '/usr': in various places,
+GLIBC's build system checks whether the prefix is '/usr', and does
+special handling only if that is the case.  Unless you use this
+prefix, you will get a sysroot that does not use the standard Linux
+directory layouts and cannot be used as a basis for the root
+filesystem on your target system compatibly with normal GLIBC
+installations.
+
+The '--with-headers' option tells GLIBC where the Linux headers have
+been installed.
+
+The '--enable-add-ons=nptl,libidn,../ports' option tells GLIBC to look
+for the listed glibc add-ons. Most notably the ports add-on (located
+just above the libc sources in the GLIBC svn tree) is required to
+support ARM targets.
+
+We can now use the 'install-headers' makefile target to install the
+headers:
+
+    $ make install-headers install_root=$sysroot \
+    >                      install-bootstrap-headers=yes
+
+The 'install_root' variable indicates where the files should actually
+be installed; its value is treated as the parent of the '--prefix'
+directory we passed to the configure script, so the headers will go in
+'$sysroot/usr/include'.  The 'install-bootstrap-headers' variable
+requests special handling for certain tricky header files.
+
+Next, there are a few object files needed to link shared libraries,
+which we build and install by hand:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $sysroot/usr/lib
+    $ make csu/subdir_lib
+    $ cp csu/crt1.o csu/crti.o csu/crtn.o $sysroot/usr/lib
+
+Finally, 'libgcc_s.so' requires a 'libc.so' to link against.  However,
+since we will never actually execute its code, it doesn't matter what
+it contains.  So, treating '/dev/null' as a C source file, we produce
+a dummy 'libc.so' in one step:
+
+    $ $tools/bin/$target-gcc -nostdlib -nostartfiles -shared -x c /dev/null \
+    >                        -o $sysroot/usr/lib/libc.so
+
+
+The Second GCC
+
+With the GLIBC headers and selected object files installed, we can
+now build a GCC that is capable of compiling GLIBC.  We configure,
+build, and install the second GCC, again building only the C compiler,
+and avoiding libraries we won't use:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/gcc2
+    $ cd $obj/gcc2
+    $ $src/$gccv/configure \
+    >     --target=$target \
+    >     --prefix=$tools \
+    >     --with-sysroot=$sysroot \
+    >     --disable-libssp --disable-libgomp --disable-libmudflap \
+    >     --disable-libffi --disable-libquadmath \
+    >     --enable-languages=c
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make install
+
+
+GLIBC, Complete
+
+With the second compiler built and installed, we're now ready for the
+full GLIBC build:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/glibc
+    $ cd $obj/glibc
+    $ BUILD_CC=gcc \
+    > CC=$tools/bin/$target-gcc \
+    > CXX=$tools/bin/$target-g++ \
+    > AR=$tools/bin/$target-ar \
+    > RANLIB=$tools/bin/$target-ranlib \
+    > $src/glibc/libc/configure \
+    >     --prefix=/usr \
+    >     --with-headers=$sysroot/usr/include \
+    >     --with-kconfig=$obj/linux/scripts/kconfig \
+    >     --build=$build \
+    >     --host=$target \
+    >     --disable-profile --without-gd --without-cvs \
+    >     --enable-add-ons=nptl,libidn,../ports
+
+Note the additional '--with-kconfig' option. This tells GLIBC where to
+find the host config tools used by the kernel 'make config' and 'make
+menuconfig'.  These tools can be re-used by GLIBC for its own 'make
+*config' support, which will create 'option-groups.config' for you.
+But first make sure those tools have been built by running some
+dummy 'make *config' calls in the kernel directory:
+
+    $ cd $obj/linux
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make config \
+    >      ARCH=$linux_arch CROSS_COMPILE=$target- \
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make menuconfig \
+    >      ARCH=$linux_arch CROSS_COMPILE=$target- \
+
+Now we can configure and build the full GLIBC:
+
+    $ cd $obj/glibc
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make defconfig
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make menuconfig
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make install install_root=$sysroot
+
+At this point, we have a complete GLIBC installation in '$sysroot',
+with header files, library files, and most of the C runtime startup
+files in place.
+
+
+The Third GCC
+
+Finally, we recompile GCC against this full installation, enabling
+whatever languages and libraries we would like to use:
+
+    $ mkdir -p $obj/gcc3
+    $ cd $obj/gcc3
+    $ $src/$gccv/configure \
+    >     --target=$target \
+    >     --prefix=$tools \
+    >     --with-sysroot=$sysroot \
+    >     --enable-__cxa_atexit \
+    >     --disable-libssp --disable-libgomp --disable-libmudflap \
+    >     --enable-languages=c,c++
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make
+    $ PATH=$tools/bin:$PATH make install
+
+The '--enable-__cxa_atexit' option tells GCC what sort of C++
+destructor support to expect from the C library; it's required with
+GLIBC.
+
+And since GCC's installation process isn't designed to help construct
+sysroot trees, we must manually copy certain libraries into place in
+the sysroot.
+
+    $ cp -d $tools/$target/lib/libgcc_s.so* $sysroot/lib
+    $ cp -d $tools/$target/lib/libstdc++.so* $sysroot/usr/lib
+
+
+Trying Things Out
+
+At this point, '$tools' contains a cross toolchain ready to use
+the GLIBC installation in '$sysroot':
+
+    $ cat > hello.c <<EOF
+    > #include <stdio.h>
+    > int
+    > main (int argc, char **argv)
+    > {
+    >   puts ("Hello, world!");
+    >   return 0;
+    > }
+    > EOF
+    $ $tools/bin/$target-gcc -Wall hello.c -o hello
+    $ cat > c++-hello.cc <<EOF
+    > #include <iostream>
+    > int
+    > main (int argc, char **argv)
+    > {
+    >   std::cout << "Hello, C++ world!" << std::endl;
+    >   return 0;
+    > }
+    > EOF
+    $ $tools/bin/$target-g++ -Wall c++-hello.cc -o c++-hello
+
+
+We can use 'readelf' to verify that these are indeed executables for
+our target, using our dynamic linker:
+
+    $ $tools/bin/$target-readelf -hl hello
+    ELF Header:
+    ...
+      Type:                              EXEC (Executable file)
+      Machine:                           ARM
+
+    ...
+    Program Headers:
+      Type           Offset   VirtAddr   PhysAddr   FileSiz MemSiz  Flg Align
+      PHDR           0x000034 0x10000034 0x10000034 0x00100 0x00100 R E 0x4
+      INTERP         0x000134 0x00008134 0x00008134 0x00013 0x00013 R   0x1
+          [Requesting program interpreter: /lib/ld-linux.so.3]
+      LOAD           0x000000 0x00008000 0x00008000 0x0042c 0x0042c R E 0x8000
+    ...
+
+Looking at the dynamic section of the installed 'libgcc_s.so', we see
+that the 'NEEDED' entry for the C library does include the '.6'
+suffix, indicating that was linked against our fully build GLIBC, and
+not our dummy 'libc.so':
+
+    $ $tools/bin/$target-readelf -d $sysroot/lib/libgcc_s.so.1
+    Dynamic section at offset 0x1083c contains 24 entries:
+      Tag        Type                         Name/Value
+     0x00000001 (NEEDED)                     Shared library: [libc.so.6]
+     0x0000000e (SONAME)                     Library soname: [libgcc_s.so.1]
+    ...
+
+
+And on the target machine, we can run our programs:
+
+    $ $sysroot/lib/ld.so.1 --library-path $sysroot/lib:$sysroot/usr/lib \
+    > ./hello
+    Hello, world!
+    $ $sysroot/lib/ld.so.1 --library-path $sysroot/lib:$sysroot/usr/lib \
+    > ./c++-hello
+    Hello, C++ world!
diff --git a/GLIBC.cross-testing b/GLIBC.cross-testing
new file mode 100644
index 0000000000..b67b468466
--- /dev/null
+++ b/GLIBC.cross-testing
@@ -0,0 +1,205 @@
+                                                        -*- mode: text -*-
+
+                      Cross-Testing With GLIBC
+                  Jim Blandy <jimb@codesourcery.com>
+
+
+Introduction
+
+Developers writing software for embedded systems often use a desktop
+or other similarly capable computer for development, but need to run
+tests on the embedded system, or perhaps on a simulator.  When
+configured for cross-compilation, the stock GNU C library simply
+disables running tests altogether: the command 'make tests' builds
+test programs, but does not run them.  GLIBC, however, provides
+facilities for compiling tests and generating data files on the build
+system, but running the test programs themselves on a remote system or
+simulator.
+
+
+Test environment requirements
+
+The test environment must meet certain conditions for GLIBC's
+cross-testing facilities to work:
+
+- Shared filesystems.  The 'build' system, on which you configure and
+  compile GLIBC, and the 'host' system, on which you intend to run
+  GLIBC, must share a filesystem containing the GLIBC build and
+  source trees.  Files must appear at the same paths on both systems.
+
+- Remote-shell like invocation.  There must be a way to run a program
+  on the host system from the build system, passing it properly quoted
+  command-line arguments, setting environment variables, and
+  inheriting the caller's standard input and output.
+
+
+Usage
+
+To use GLIBC's cross-testing support, provide values for the
+following Make variables when you invoke 'make':
+
+- cross-test-wrapper
+
+  This should be the name of the cross-testing wrapper command, along
+  with any arguments.
+
+- cross-localedef
+
+  This should be the name of a cross-capable localedef program, like
+  that included in the GLIBC 'localedef' module, along with any
+  arguments needed.
+
+These are each explained in detail below.
+
+
+The Cross-Testing Wrapper
+
+To run test programs reliably, the stock GNU C library takes care to
+ensure that test programs use the newly compiled dynamic linker and
+shared libraries, and never the host system's installed libraries.  To
+accomplish this, it runs the tests by explicitly invoking the dynamic
+linker from the build tree, passing it a list of build tree
+directories to search for shared libraries, followed by the name of
+the executable to run and its arguments.
+
+For example, where one might normally run a test program like this:
+
+    $ ./tst-foo arg1 arg2
+
+the GNU C library might run that program like this:
+
+    $ $objdir/elf/ld-linux.so.3 --library-path $objdir \
+      ./tst-foo arg1 arg2
+
+(where $objdir is the path to the top of the build tree, and the
+trailing backslash indicates a continuation of the command).  In other
+words, each test program invocation is 'wrapped up' inside an explicit
+invocation of the dynamic linker, which must itself execute the test
+program, having loaded shared libraries from the appropriate
+directories.
+
+To support cross-testing, GLIBC allows the developer to optionally
+set the 'cross-test-wrapper' Make variable to another wrapper command,
+to which it passes the entire dynamic linker invocation shown above as
+arguments.  For example, if the developer supplies a wrapper of
+'my-wrapper hostname', then GLIBC would run the test above as
+follows:
+
+    $ my-wrapper hostname \
+      $objdir/elf/ld-linux.so.3 --library-path $objdir \
+      ./tst-foo arg1 arg2
+
+The 'my-wrapper' command is responsible for executing the command
+given on the host system.
+
+Since tests are run in varying directories, the wrapper should either
+be in your command search path, or 'cross-test-wrapper' should give an
+absolute path for the wrapper.
+
+The wrapper must meet several requirements:
+
+- It must preserve the current directory.  As explained above, the
+  build directory tree must be visible on both the build and host
+  systems, at the same path.  The test wrapper must ensure that the
+  current directory it inherits is also inherited by the dynamic
+  linker (and thus the test program itself).
+
+- It must preserve environment variables' values.  Many GLIBC tests
+  set environment variables for test runs; in native testing, it
+  invokes programs like this:
+
+    $ GCONV_PATH=$objdir/iconvdata \
+      $objdir/elf/ld-linux.so.3 --library-path $objdir \
+      ./tst-foo arg1 arg2
+
+  With the cross-testing wrapper, that invocation becomes:
+
+    $ GCONV_PATH=$objdir/iconvdata \
+      my-wrapper hostname \
+      $objdir/elf/ld-linux.so.3 --library-path $objdir \
+      ./tst-foo arg1 arg2
+
+  Here, 'my-wrapper' must ensure that the value it sees for
+  'GCONV_PATH' will be seen by the dynamic linker, and thus 'tst-foo'
+  itself.  (The wrapper supplied with GLIBC simply preserves the
+  values of *all* enviroment variables, with a fixed set of
+  exceptions.)
+
+  If your wrapper is a shell script, take care to correctly propagate
+  environment variables whose values contain spaces and shell
+  metacharacters.
+
+- It must pass the command's arguments, unmodified.  The arguments
+  seen by the test program should be exactly those seen by the wrapper
+  (after whatever arguments are given to the wrapper itself).  The
+  GLIBC test framework performs all needed shell word splitting and
+  expansion (wildcard expansion, parameter substitution, and so on)
+  before invoking the wrapper; further expansion may break the tests.
+
+
+The 'cross-test-ssh.sh' script
+
+If you want to use 'ssh' (or something sufficiently similar) to run
+test programs on your host system, GLIBC includes a shell script,
+'scripts/cross-test-ssh.sh', which you can use as your wrapper
+command.  This script takes care of setting the test command's current
+directory, propagating environment variable values, and carrying
+command-line arguments, all across an 'ssh' connection.  You may even
+supply an alternative to 'ssh' on the command line, if needed.
+
+For more details, pass 'cross-test-ssh.sh' the '--help' option.
+
+
+The Cross-Compiling Locale Definition Command
+
+Some GLIBC tests rely on locales generated especially for the test
+process.  In a native configuration, these tests simply run the
+'localedef' command built by the normal GLIBC build process,
+'locale/localedef', to process and install their locales.  However, in
+a cross-compiling configuration, this 'localedef' is built for the
+host system, not the build system, and since it requires quite a bit
+of memory to run (we have seen it fail on systems with 64MiB of
+memory), it may not be practical to run it on the host system.
+
+If set, GLIBC uses the 'cross-localedef' Make variable as the command
+to run on the build system to process and install locales.  The
+localedef program built from the GLIBC 'localedef' module is
+suitable.
+
+The value of 'cross-localedef' may also include command-line arguments
+to be passed to the program; if you are using GLIBC's 'localedef',
+you may include endianness and 'uint32_t' alignment arguments here.
+
+
+Example
+
+In developing GLIBC's cross-testing facility, we invoked 'make' with
+the following script:
+
+    #!/bin/sh
+
+    srcdir=...
+    test_hostname=...
+    localedefdir=...
+    cross_gxx=...-g++
+
+    wrapper="$srcdir/scripts/cross-test-ssh.sh $test_hostname"
+    localedef="$localedefdir/localedef --little-endian --uint32-align=4"
+
+    make cross-test-wrapper="$wrapper" \
+         cross-localedef="$localedef" \
+         CXX="$cross_gxx" \
+         "$@"
+
+
+Other Cross-Testing Concerns
+
+Here are notes on some other issues which you may encounter in running
+the GLIBC tests in a cross-compiling environment:
+
+- Some tests require a C++ cross-compiler; you should set the 'CXX'
+  Make variable to the name of an appropriate cross-compiler.
+
+- Some tests require access to libstdc++.so.6 and libgcc_s.so.1; we
+  simply place copies of these libraries in the top GLIBC build
+  directory.