Academic Free License
This Academic Free License applies to any original work of authorship
(the "Original Work") whose owner (the "Licensor") has placed the
following notice immediately following the copyright notice for the
Licensed under the Academic Free License version 1.2
Grant of License. Licensor hereby grants to any person obtaining a
copy of the Original Work ("You") a world-wide, royalty-free,
non-exclusive, perpetual, non-sublicenseable license (1) to use, copy,
modify, merge, publish, perform, distribute and/or sell copies of the
Original Work and derivative works thereof, and (2) under patent claims
owned or controlled by the Licensor that are embodied in the Original
Work as furnished by the Licensor, to make, use, sell and offer for
sale the Original Work and derivative works thereof, subject to the
Attribution Rights. You must retain, in the Source Code of any
Derivative Works that You create, all copyright, patent or trademark
notices from the Source Code of the Original Work, as well as any
notices of licensing and any descriptive text identified therein as an
"Attribution Notice." You must cause the Source Code for any Derivative
Works that You create to carry a prominent Attribution Notice reasonably
calculated to inform recipients that You have modified the Original Work.
Exclusions from License Grant. Neither the names of Licensor, nor the
names of any contributors to the Original Work, nor any of their
trademarks or service marks, may be used to endorse or promote products
derived from this Original Work without express prior written permission
of the Licensor.
Warranty and Disclaimer of Warranty. Licensor warrants that the copyright
in and to the Original Work is owned by the Licensor or that the Original
Work is distributed by Licensor under a valid current license from the
copyright owner. Except as expressly stated in the immediately proceeding
sentence, the Original Work is provided under this License on an "AS IS"
BASIS and WITHOUT WARRANTY, either express or implied, including, without
limitation, the warranties of NON-INFRINGEMENT, MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THE ENTIRE RISK AS TO THE QUALITY OF THE ORIGINAL
WORK IS WITH YOU. This DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY constitutes an essential part
of this License. No license to Original Work is granted hereunder except
under this disclaimer.
Limitation of Liability. Under no circumstances and under no legal theory,
whether in tort (including negligence), contract, or otherwise, shall the
Licensor be liable to any person for any direct, indirect, special,
incidental, or consequential damages of any character arising as a result
of this License or the use of the Original Work including, without
limitation, damages for loss of goodwill, work stoppage, computer failure
or malfunction, or any and all other commercial damages or losses. This
limitation of liability shall not apply to liability for death or personal
injury resulting from Licensor`s negligence to the extent applicable law
prohibits such limitation. Some jurisdictions do not allow the exclusion or
limitation of incidental or consequential damages, so this exclusion and
limitation may not apply to You.
License to Source Code. The term "Source Code" means the preferred form of
the Original Work for making modifications to it and all available
documentation describing how to modify the Original Work. Licensor hereby
agrees to provide a machine-readable copy of the Source Code of the Original
Work along with each copy of the Original Work that Licensor distributes.
Licensor reserves the right to satisfy this obligation by placing a
machine-readable copy of the Source Code in an information repository
reasonably calculated to permit inexpensive and convenient access by You for
as long as Licensor continues to distribute the Original Work, and by
publishing the address of that information repository in a notice immediately
following the copyright notice that applies to the Original Work.
Mutual Termination for Patent Action. This License shall terminate
automatically and You may no longer exercise any of the rights granted to You
by this License if You file a lawsuit in any court alleging that any OSI
Certified open source software that is licensed under any license containing
this "Mutual Termination for Patent Action" clause infringes any patent
claims that are essential to use that software.
Right to Use. You may use the Original Work in all ways not otherwise
restricted or conditioned by this License or by law, and Licensor promises
not to interfere with or be responsible for such uses by You.
This license is Copyright (C) 2002 Lawrence E. Rosen. All rights reserved.
Permission is hereby granted to copy and distribute this license without
modification. This license may not be modified without the express written
permission of its copyright owner.
END OF LICENSE. The following is intended to describe the essential
differences between the Academic Free License (AFL) version 1.0 and other
open source licenses:
The Academic Free License is similar to the BSD, MIT, UoI/NCSA and Apache
licenses in many respects but it is intended to solve a few problems with
* The AFL is written so as to make it clear what software is being
licensed (by the inclusion of a statement following the copyright notice
in the software). This way, the license functions better than a template
license. The BSD, MIT and UoI/NCSA licenses apply to unidentified software.
* The AFL contains a complete copyright grant to the software. The BSD
and Apache licenses are vague and incomplete in that respect.
* The AFL contains a complete patent grant to the software. The BSD, MIT,
UoI/NCSA and Apache licenses rely on an implied patent license and contain
no explicit patent grant.
* The AFL makes it clear that no trademark rights are granted to the
licensor`s trademarks. The Apache license contains such a provision, but the
BSD, MIT and UoI/NCSA licenses do not.
* The AFL includes the warranty by the licensor that it either owns the
copyright or that it is distributing the software under a license. None of
the other licenses contain that warranty. All other warranties are disclaimed,
as is the case for the other licenses.
* The AFL is itself copyrighted (with the right granted to copy and distribute
without modification). This ensures that the owner of the copyright to the
license will control changes. The Apache license contains a copyright notice,
but the BSD, MIT and UoI/NCSA licenses do not.